Electric Arc Furnace

What is the role of the electric arc furnace in the industry?

Electric arc furnaces are industrial tools in different dimensions and sizes that are used to melt all kinds of metals, both ferrous and non-ferrous. The electric arc causes the process of converting electrical energy into thermal energy to happen in a correct and scientific way so that the materials inside the furnace are completely melted. This energy conversion will have the power to create a temperature equal to 7000 degrees Celsius, thus it is used to produce steel, cast iron and some other metals.

How does the electric arc furnace work?

The process of converting electrical energy into heat in electric arc furnaces is called tap-to-tap cycle. This process takes place during five stages of furnace charging, melting, recovery, slag removal and furnace rotation. As we said, every electric arc furnace has a lower and upper refractory tank and a roof that can be tilted hydraulically.

In the first stage of the production of metals, especially steel in electric arc furnaces, a furnace or a basin is needed to store molten metal or iron. In fact, the quality of the materials produced in this furnace depends on high-quality raw materials and suitable additives. Therefore, usually in arc furnaces, scrap iron and sponge iron are used as the primary charging material. Of course, in the continuation of the process, depending on the type of final product, to the raw material of other materials such as; Ferroalloys, ferrocarbons, slag-generating materials and lubricants are added as needed.

In every arc furnace, sponge iron and scrap iron are used as the main charge material, usually with a combination of 15% scrap and 85% sponge iron. Iron and its scraps are poured into the furnace by an electromagnetic magnet. In this process, the electrodes move up and down after being placed on top of the furnace by the holding arms in the roof of the furnace to generate heat.

The length of the arc and the amount of heat produced are directly related to the length of the electrode. After heat production, the charge of the furnace enters the furnace from the roof, which has the shape of a cap with a relatively light weight. In the next step, the melt discharge chamber, which was closed by refractory mud before charging the furnace, is opened after the melting and refining process, the furnace is bent and the melt is discharged from inside it. These melts are transferred to special bottles to be sent to the casting unit. There they will be transformed into different states that are needed.

What are the types of electric arc furnace?

Electric arc furnaces are divided into two groups based on their slag: alkaline or acid, but in a more precise classification based on the type of electric current passage, these furnaces are divided into two groups; Direct furnace and indirect furnace are divided. · Direct arc furnace

In direct arc furnaces, arc production is performed by electrodes and charging, so that melting steps are performed by creating heat equal to 4000 degrees Celsius. In direct current electric arc furnaces, consumable electrodes are normally used. Types of direct arc furnace:

Single electrode Two electrodes Three electrodes

Direct arc furnaces are produced in three types: single-electrode, two-electrode, and three-electrode, and the three-electrode type is used to prepare or melt heavy metals such as steel in high tonnages. Indirect arc furnace

Using an arc furnace in an indirect way is usually used to produce or melt non-ferrous metals, cast iron, etc. In this method, in order to form an electric arc, two electrodes are placed above the charge of the furnace so that the melt production process is achieved through the heat transferred to the charge. Types of indirect arc furnace:

Single phase furnaces Two-phase furnaces Three-phase furnaces

Indirect arc furnaces with different types; There are single-phase furnaces, two-phase furnaces, and three-phase furnaces, and single-phase furnaces are divided into two categories; Furnaces used for special operations and horizontal or roller furnaces are divided.

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